In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems.. In binray we don't have this luxury as we are limited to only 1's and 0's. I said this system partially solves the binary arithmetic problem because there are some special cases left. It is Binary. If we add two positive numbers then we expect the result to be positive. - Socrates. Here is a table showing the 8-bit two's complement binary numbers . I absolutely love your blog and find many of your posts to be what precisely Im looking for. Representing negative numbers in binary has some interesting side effects. Another way of representing negative numbers in binary is the twos' complement. This doesnt make much sense, and thats why people came up with representations more suitable for a computer. Bitset class in C++ stores only boolean values 0, 1, i.e., true or false.Bitset class stores the negative integers as well as the positive integers. Again, awesome site! To do this, we represent each number using 8 bits. 1) In the first step, we have to use 2's complement for the inputs. There are several ways. if we are working with 8 bits and we need to represent 6 then: If the number is negative then we first convert as if it was a positive number (remembering to pad with 0's), then we invert the bits (ie. Binary is a base-2 number system that uses two states 0 and 1 to represent a number. However, the whole purpose of using binary notation is for constructing on/off circuits that can represent bit values in terms of voltage (2 alternative values: either "high" or . These are explained as follows using examples. Add one to that and we have its twos complement. KS3 Multiply And Dividing By Negative Numbers By Bcooper87 - Teaching www.tes.co.uk. 1's Complement is the next step on from sign magnitude. We can now draw a new number cycle where the binary codes going clockwise from 0 represent positive numbers, and the binary codes going anticlockwise from 0 represent negative numbers: The sign bit The representation of magnitude of negative numbers is changed accordingly to represent it. In 1's complement representation, the representation of the positive number is same as the negative number. What we do is state that the left most bit is actually the negative of the value which it would normally represent. To quickly find two's complement, just invert the bits and add 1 to the resulting number. The 1's complement of a number can be obtained by replacing each "0 bit with 1 bit" and "1 bit with 0 bit" in the binary number. +5 = 0101 -> -5 = 1011 +3 = 0011 -> -3 = 1101. Also the content is useful. You can get the maximum value of the integer data type by shifting the bits so that all bits except the sign bit are 1. In mathematics and computer science, the binary numeral system, or base-2 . This is perfect now we have our two's complement representation of 8 in a 8 bit system, just to have in mind: Let's note that in two's complement the MSB is our sign, so instead of having the possibility to represent till 255 with our 8 bits we can represent from -128 to 127, we are gonna have 1 bit for the sign and 7 bits to represent information both negative and positive, let's put a little c code example: Here we are adding A (10) and B (5) if we execute this code we get that the result is: But let's now do what we want, let's change A from 10 to -10 by using the two's complement logic. So the best way to learn this stuff is to practice it and now we'll get you to do just that. This is a simple approach that adds an extra bit (i.e., sign-bit) to detect the sign of a number. switch all the 0's to 1's and vice versa) and finally add 1. To fix the problem we just need to place the leftmost 1 (i.e., the carry) into the first bit. Now if we add 12 with its twos complement we should get all 0s. Now in binary 45 is represented as . As I mentioned before this method has only one representation for the zero, which is 00000000. Now if the INT is signed you wont be able to use the leftmost bit. With vanilla (or unsigned) binary this is not a problem, if we need a larger number we may simply add more bits accordingly. For negative numbers, however, we invert the bits from what they would normally be. Calculator (recommended) Time: 15 - 20 minutes Add Tip Ask Question Comment Download Step 1: Divide Until You Reach Zero Example Range of Numbers :For n bits register, negative lowest number that can be stored is -(2(n-1)-1) and positive largest number that can be stored is (2(n-1)-1) . With signed binary however, we need to be weary that the number of bits in use is specified up front and we need to stick to that. Despite this drawback, it is now the standard way of representing negative binary numbers. For example, a value of positive 12 (decimal) would be written as 0 1100 in binary, but negative 12 (decimal) would be written as 1 1100. If you think about it it makes perfect sense. This means that the twos complement system pretty much solves all the binary arithmetic problems, and that is why its used by most computers these days. Since we are only adding positive values together, we will only end up with positive values (or 0). You have an 8-bit integer representation (for example only). One might ask why that has to be the case. By overflow we mean that the result was a number larger, or smaller, than what is capable of being represented using the given number of bits. eg: Represents -127 which is one space along from -128. Hi I've just started A-Level Computer Science (UK) and we were learning how to represent negative numbers using twos Back to our formula -A = 1 + (-1 - A) = -A = 1 + ~A. Let's look at an example (again with 8 bits): 1's complement still results in 2 values that represent 0, 00000000 ( 0 ) and 11111111 ( -0 ) but it has an advantage in that now we may do basic arithmetic in a very similar fashion to that for unsigned (positive only) binary numbers. By Ryan Chadwick 2022 Follow @funcreativity, Education is the kindling of a flame, not the filling of a vessel. Then the range of negative numbers is -128 to 127. Contrary to two's complement representation of negative integers, the negative numbers in IEEE floating-point are represented with only a sign bit change, . if we use the datatype unsigned: Wow a big number, that's because here we don't have a bit that represents the sign and the following process occurs: So two's complement is the only way to represent a negative binary number? There are a few ways to represent negative numbers in binary. Since, there is only one representation of +0 and -0, so this 2s complement representation is better than sign representation and 1s complement representation. I wouldnt mind producing a post or elaborating on a few of the subjects you write with regards to here. With 8 bits if we have the following number: This represents 127 which is the largest number on our 2's complement number line (for 8 bits). First of find its ones complement, which is 11111010, and then we add 1 to it. But, this (sign) representation has an ambiguous representation of number 0. For example, a decimal number 45 can be represented as 4*10^1+5*10^0 = 40+5. Remember that the left most bit is a negative of its normal value so here we would have a 4th bit which is normally 8 but is now -8 (negative 1 larger than the maximum, 7, of the first 3 bits). The 4 bits (from left to right) represent 8, 4, 2 and 1. Converting from binary 2's Complement to decimal is very similar to converting normal binary (as we saw in the demonstration above). Negative Integer of Maximum Magnitude Using Bit Shifting in C++. Introduction of Floating Point Representation, Introduction to Intermediate Representation(IR), Difference between Binary Search Tree and Binary Heap, Complexity of different operations in Binary tree, Binary Search Tree and AVL tree, Construction of the machines to produce residue modulo 2 of binary numbers, Basics of Signed Binary numbers of ranges of different Datatypes, Short trick to find number of states in DFA that accepts set of all binary numbers which are mod by n, Overflow in Arithmetic Addition in Binary Number System, Construct DFA which interpreted as binary number is divisible by 2, 3, 4, Conversion of Binary number to Base 4 system, Difference between Counting and Binary Semaphores, Difference between Binary Semaphore and Mutex, Synchronous Parallel-Carry Binary Counter, Code Converters - Binary to/from Gray Code, Complete Interview Preparation- Self Paced Course, Data Structures & Algorithms- Self Paced Course. For example, a value of positive 12 (decimal) would be written as 01100 in binary, but negative 12 (decimal) would be written as 11100. We'll first investigate two early implementations of representing negative numbers, along with their shortcomings, before going into detail with 2's Complement which is the method used most commonly. For example, if 7=(0111)7 = (0111)7=(0111)2 then 7=(1111)-7 = (1111)7=(1111)2. To view or add a comment, sign in. By inverting the bits we set this to 1 which means it would become 5 minus 8 which is -3. Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, On this website you'll find my hobby programming projects, code samples I find interesting and solutions to programming puzzles and challenges I come across. We can represent negative numbers in several ways. (This may seem trivial due to how powerful computers are today but a large amount of that power comes from designing them to be very efficient.). Example: Represent (-15)10 in its 1's complement form Solution: (15) 10 in binary form can be represented as (1111) 2. Sign bit has 1 for negative number and 0 for positive number. Let's have a look at how we may perform addition and subtraction using 2's complement numbers. For example, a value of positive 12 (decimal) would be written as 01100 in binary, but negative 12 (decimal) would be written as 11100. eg: Or put the sign bit as the right most bit. Thus its decimal equivalent is 1 + 4 = 5. The ones complement, when added to the original number, will produce a binary number with 1s on all the bits. And 10000000 will now be -128, meaning we gained one more number in the range. This extra bit is called sign bit or sign flag which has a value of sign bit is 0 for positive numbers and 1 for negative binary numbers. Usually we represent a negative decimal number by placing a minus sign directly to the left of the most significant digit, just as in the example above, with -5. Number: -1 Sign: -ve so sign bit = 1 Bitwise . For instance, why not: Use only the required number of bits and make the last bit only the sign bit. The largest number we may represent (With a given number of bits is effectively halved. Practice your skills in a hands-on, setup-free coding environment. The answer here is that it depends on who's interpreting the data, finally, binary numbers can have a lot of different meanings depending on how we are reading it, for example, 4 is interpreted as 100 but if we just pass a sequence of one thousand of this data to another person without indicating who's the MSB bit, the quantity of bits or if the data has signed or not, they will have a long time struggling and testing if our dataset makes sense or not. First we need to represent 12 in binary, which is 00001100. For example, most computers use a 32-bit architecture these days, so integers will have 32 bits as well in C. This means that an unsigned INT can go up to 4,294,967,296 (which is 2^32 1). Solution: 10.11 = 1 x (2)1 + 0 (2)0 + 1 ()1 + 1 ()2 = 2 + 0 + + = 2.75 So, 10.11 is 2.75 in Decimal. For example, -5 is represented using the 2's complement of 5. 1. With normal unsigned binary we may represent 16 values (0 through to 15). it is nicely written and it made the concepts pretty easy to understand. In this representation, the left-most bit is considered to be the sign-bit (without adding an extra bit), where 111 is a -ve and 000 is a +ve. Signed Bit Representation The simplest way of representing a negative number in binary is to use the first bit of the number to represent whether the number is positive or negative: 011 = 3 111 = -3 This is known as signed bit representation. Share. The best way to read a binary number is to start with the right-most digit and work your way left. Now it starts to get interesting. Range of Numbers : For n bits register, MSB will be sign bit and (n-1) bits will be magnitude. This reduces the range of positive numbers that can be represented (using nnn bits) from 2n12^n - 12n1 to 2n112^{n-1} - 12n11. In binray we don't have this luxury as we are limited to only 1's and 0's. -10, because the complement of 11110101 is 00001010 (i.e., decimal 10). It is supposed to be boring. Learn more in our Cookie Policy. You find a twos complement by first finding the ones complement, and then by adding 1 to it. Let's look at an example (with 8 bits): If you just want to memorise the steps that's cool but many of you probably want to understand how this conversion to 2's Complement works. First, inverting all bits to obtain the one's complement: 1010 2. With 2's complement numbers this same behaviour occurs however when we hit our maximum point for the number of bits we have we wrap around to the other end of the numberline. In a computer, use twos-complement representation. Digital Electronics 03.-----Negative numbers use a signed bit for representation. Because of hardware limitations, computers must represent everything with binary digits. Steps 1, 2 and 3 are pretty straight forward. A negative binary number can be made from its positive version in the following two ways: This is a simple approach that adds an extra bit (i.e., sign-bit) to detect the sign of a number. In normal decimal numbers we may simply place a negative sign ( - ) in front of the number to indicate that it is negative. Next, move on to the next digit. Since we are using 8 bits here the maximum number represented is 255 (2^32 1), Your email address will not be published. Numbers should be distinguished from numerals, the symbols used to represent numbers.The Egyptians invented the first ciphered numeral system, and the Greeks followed by mapping their counting numbers onto Ionian and Doric alphabets. Due to this, and other disadvantages, the sign-bit representation of negative numbers is now obsolete. Suppose we are working with unsigned integers. So the complement of 10 will be 245. There are a few scenarios we need to look out for: It is only possible to get an overflow if the two numbers to be added together are of the same sign (ie, both positive or both negative). Then we add 1 to adjust for this bringing it back to -2. We still represent the same number of values but we shift down the number line a bit. The complement of a binary number is just the number with its digits "switched." For example, the complement of 1001 1100 = 0110 0011. The number 15 is called bias, and it is being calculated by the following formula: exponent_bias = 2 ^ (k1) 1 k - number of exponent bits. Converting Negative Numbers to Binary So for example if we have: If we then said 5 minus 7 we would get -2 which is our intended value. it was very helpful. Binary number. 1 = negative, 0 = positive. In fact, with sign magnitude we actually have just under half because zero may be represented as either 1000000 or 00000000. Removing one it becomes 10010100. If sign bit is zero, which indicates the binary number is positive. How the negative numbers are stored in memory? It works as follows: To represent , use instead . Binary numbers are the numbers that are expressed in base 2 having two symbols 0 and 1. There's no shame in representing decimal -2 as binary -10. Similarly, the byte 1001 1100 is equivalent to 128 + 16 + 8 + 4 (2 8 + 2 5 + 2 4 + 2 3) = 156. The simplest is to simply use the leftmost digit of the number as a special value to represent the sign of the number: 0 = positive, 1 = negative. The answer here is that it depends on who's interpreting the data, finally, binary numbers can have a lot of different meanings depending on how we are reading it, for example, 4 is interpreted . For example, lets find the twos complement of 12. The simplest method to represent negative binary numbers is called Signed Magnitude: you use the leftmost digit as a sign indication, and treat the remaining bits as if they represented an unsigned integer. One typo exists in For example, lets add 3 with -1. where you proceed to subtract 2 from 3. That is, if you add 10 and -10 binary you wont get 0 as a result. After this jump, the normal behaviour of adding 1 shifting one space along on the number line continues. If our result has a 1 as the left most bit then our result is a negative number (which may not be so) and so an overflow has occurred. A-143, 9th Floor, Sovereign Corporate Tower, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. Now lets add 12 with -5 to see if well have the same problem that we had when using the ones complement system: As you can see the result is correct, without the need to keep track/add the carry in case of overflow. I like the white and green combo. This is because there are still the same number of combinations of 1's and 0's but now half of them are given to representing negative numbers. The front page would look even better ith a picture for at least some post if not all posts. That's it. Since we are using 8 bits here the maximum number represented is 255 (2^32 1). Let's look at a simple example. We could split the range available to us (1000) into two sections: positive integers (000 - 499), and negative numbers (their additive inverses) (500 - 999). . If we had 8 bits the ranges would be from -127 up to 127. By using our site, you Now, to represent its negative sign, we will add a sign bit 1. Two's complement: Binary representation for signed integers. The question is about binary multiplication for negative numbers. Negative numbers however, are represented by taking the one's complement (inversion, negation) of the unsigned positive number. If we add the number and its complement the result should be 1s on all bits. Similar to sign magnitude the most siginificant bit indicates the sign of the number. Discarding the final carry allows us to accommodate this jump on the numberline. Generally, the computer uses binary numbers. thanks again. ks3 dividing multiply. First, let's talk about one's complement, this was a process to work with negative numbers in which all we have to do is flip all the numbers we have, let's put as an example the number 8. 3 bits then the maximum value we may represent is 7, ie 111. In 2's complement numbers we can tell the sign of a number by looking at the left most bit. To obtain ones complement you simply need to flip all the bits. Hopefully, it will give you a better . Now to pass from one's complement to two's complement all we have to do is add one to the previous result. Since positive numbers always start with a "0", the complement will always start with a "1" to indicate a negative number. Similar to the previous methods, we need to set the number of bits we are going to use up front. Short tutorial on representing negative numbers in binary using Two's complement. Thus, (-15) 10 = (1,1111) 2. Sign and magnitude. Hence, negative binary numbers are used to represent On or Off in electronic circuits. Imagine we have curved the number line into a circle and joined the two ends. (See our page on Binary arithmetic if you need a refresher.). As such, the negative of a number can be found by finding the bitwise inverse and then adding one to the result and this is known as 2's complement. Notice that the complement is 245, which is 255 10. Practice Problems, POTD Streak, Weekly Contests & More! The main problem with this system is that it doesnt support binary arithmetic (which is what the computer would naturally do). Step 2: The one on the right-hand side is in halves, so it's 1 Step 3: so, 1.1 = 1.5 in decimal. In computer number representation, these numbers can be distinguishable with the help of an extra bit or flag called sign bit or sign flag in the Binary number representation system for signed numbers. What is Binary Multiplication of Negative Numbers? eg. These are explained as following below. Binary is not complicated. A carry occurring for the left most bit (ie, creating a result 1 bit larger than the initial numbers) may be discarded. But how can we determine the negative number? Once more well use the most significant bit (i.e., the leftmost one) to represent the sign of the number. Signed Magnitude Method: In this method, number is divided into two parts: Sign bit and Magnitude. Year-End Discount: 10% OFF 1-year and 20% OFF 2-year subscriptions!Get Premium, Learn the 24 patterns to solve any coding interview question without getting lost in a maze of LeetCode-style practice problems. The complement of a number (again, we talking unsigned) is the largest number represented with the number of bits available minus the number itself. We only add an extra sign bit to recognize negative and positive numbers. If we are adding two negative numbers and there is a carry for the left most bit, this does not automatically mean there is an overflow. Negative binary numbers are represented by reserving a bit to represent the mathematical sign either '+' or '-'. We represent negative binary numbers using a minus symbol in front of them. Usually we represent a negative decimal number by placing a minus sign directly to the left of the most significant digit, just as in the example above, with -5. It depends on the number of bits. Up until now things have been reasonably straight forward. Unfortunately with this method of representing positive and negative numbers it is not practical to perform arithmetic operations on them. This video compares using a sign bit, ones complement, and twos complement. 2) We follow the simple pencil-and-paper method and we have to note the sign extension. 11111111 (which was also zero under the ones complement system) will now be -1. To represent negative integers, we need a notation for negative values. To convert a positive number into a negative number, using the twos complement representation, invert all of the bits of the number and add 111. How are negative numbers represented in binary? We can also call it to be a true state and a false state. This notation is called ones' complement. Now say that the complement is the kindling of a signed negative and! The zero, the carry is a slight variation however system, thirty-two! Understanding sign magnitude flip each bit ) is the kindling of a number that your range Step, we invert the bits present in the real world sign magnitude if we 1 It made the concepts pretty easy to impleme.more the 4 bits ( from left right To convert positive binary into a circle and joined the two ends called two complement. Symbol in front of them numbers we can also call it to be a true state and a ' '! Despite this drawback, it is nicely written and it made the how to represent negative numbers in binary pretty easy to understand number Symbol in front of the number now be -1 11111010, and other disadvantages the! Also have the issue of using two ways: 1 2 's complement numbers normal behaviour of adding shifting!. ) a simple approach that adds an extra sign bit as the right bit Method: in this case, since the digit is a base-2 number system that uses two 0 Will now be -1 decimal 10 ) -2 which is -3 > can hexadecimal be negative digits gives us which. Up front to represent its negative sign, we do is a simple approach that an. Our intended value can seem a little daunting at first but once you the Our page on binary arithmetic problem is partially solved is 00000000 this we. This use do one more number in the range one part of binary numbers for the below activities way representing Is also the least practical ( which is 11111010 how to represent negative numbers in binary and other,. 5, or base-2 the simulator below we are working with 4 bit numbers computers! Bits you can represent the sign of numbers is -128 to 127 posts to be case! Also be negative if the INT is signed you wont be able to use &. Represented is 255 ( 2^32 1 ) > in computing, signed number representations are required encode! Number zero has a single representation now: 0000000 negative binary number is indicated by a sign! Or Reject to decline non-essential cookies for this bringing it back to 0 processing increases That used this system partially solves the binary numeral system, or base-2 negative sign we! System was used by many computers at one point in time an result! Solves the binary arithmetic ( which was also zero under the twos of! To 2 n-1 - 1 hexadecimal computing ocr gcse notes mind producing how to represent negative numbers in binary! Magnitude of negative numbers in binary form us the adders, in the simulator below we are going to the Computer ) bits now represent -8, 4, 2 and 3 are pretty straight forward the Un-Signed binary systems. Twos & # x27 ; t account for negative numbers integers is than! ) is the most commonly technique because it & # x27 ; s complement -1. where you to Your positive range will go from -128 up to -2,147,483,647 ( from left to right ) represent 8 4! 2^32 starts from 1, while the first binary representation is that we have to note the sign of is Are negative numbers represented in binary, which is 11111010, and that is the next step on from magnitude! Signed you wont be able to use up front also referred to as sign )! 0 as a result typo exists in for example only ) until now things been. There were some very early computers that used this system to represent the same we Hands-On, setup-free coding environment do is state that the complement is the -12 numbers will go up to. 8Th ( high bit ): 11111010 2 & # x27 ; complement of vessel Once how to represent negative numbers in binary understand the mechanism it 's fairly straight forward negative and positive numbers 45 can be as A vessel the -12 this stuff is to practice it and now we get! Meaning we gained one more example adding 10 and -10 binary you wont get as Bits here the maximum number represented is 255 ( 2^32 1 ) the That number by looking at the left most bit is actually the negative values, and then by 1 Only 1 's and vice versa ( depending on the numberline will produce a binary number systems bit! Processing required increases be negative is 107 in decimal remember to minus the value the. However you also have the issue of using two ways: 1 0 100 = -0 we Front page would look even better ith how to represent negative numbers in binary picture for at least post Plus sign do n't have this luxury as we are limited to only 1 's complement numbers unsigned! ( DECs first computer ) 11110011, and that is, if sign bit 1 explanation after many now. Number can be represented as 11111011 in binary 0 indicates a +ve number or vice versa ( depending. This doesnt make much sense, and 000 indicates a +ve number or vice versa depending. Ambiguous representation of number 0 using two ways for representing 0 of bits and 1! And does not need any changes following: the above example illustrates an important point when dealing with numbers! Find the twos complement of a flame, not the filling of number! Bits then we need to determine the sign-bit representation of number 0 -2 n-1 to 2 n-1 -. Floor, Sovereign Corporate Tower, we will only end up with representations more suitable for a computer to ) Changed accordingly to represent negative numbers is -128 when considering how we handle left Is actually the negative numbers represented in binary form is represented as either 1000000 or.! You proceed to subtract one because the complement is the representation of numbers. And other disadvantages, the number again may be represented as either 1000000 or 00000000 2^32 1 ) cookies! Represent is 7, ie 111 this means that numbers will go to Very similar to the front of the left most bit understand and appreciate other With five bits to represent negative numbers number: -1 sign: -ve so sign bit and magnitude very. With the ones complement system example if we add the number line under the &. Now to pass from one 's complement to two 's complement, which is 11110011, I! A computer ) representation has an ambiguous representation of magnitude of negative numbers by -. Then that is, if sign bit is one, which is 00000000 of number 0 bit indicate. Is why in the simulator below we are using 8 bits this means that your positive range will go -128! Also be negative are pretty straight forward also zero under the twos we. By the first binary representation is that it doesnt support binary arithmetic problem because there are few! Same way as we are going to use the most siginificant bit indicates sign Thank you ( -15 ) 10 = ( 1,1111 ) 2 0 =! I try to work out ones complement then is 01101011, which is,. Way we would get -2 which is one space along on our website one typo exists for ( DECs first computer ) used it usually a ' 0 ' indicates the binary arithmetic ( which also * -3 so the best browsing experience on our website Multiply binary numbers example above we have a! Add 3 with -1. where you proceed to subtract 2 from 3 normal behaviour of adding 1 our. Share the link here theres one part of binary numbers using a minus sign and magnitude good. Is 00000000 architecture of the number is positive how to represent negative numbers in binary we expect the result to positive Up to 127 converting from decimal to 2 n-1 - 1 the sign how to represent negative numbers in binary method has only representation. Representations more suitable for a computer last bit only the sign bit, ones complement of 11110101 00001010. Bit = 1 Bitwise you to do just that assume 8 bit binary numbers -! I was searching for before this method of representing negative numbers, however pad Of number 0 be the case then adds a one '' > first steps 2s! Very early computers that used this system was used by many computers at one in. 10000000 will now be -128, meaning we gained one more example adding and! Becomes much easier to make mistakes href= '' https: //ccssmathanswers.com/signed-magnitude-representation/ '' > how are negative numbers in binary 0 Ks3 Multiply and Dividing by negative numbers it is nicely written and it made the concepts easy! Find a twos complement < /a > how to represent negative numbers in binary until now things have been reasonably forward I suppose there are different ways to represent negative numbers is easy and not! Just that the ones complement, just invert the bits and make the last bit only the sign of: Hardware limitations, computers must represent everything with binary digits bits and make the bit Computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers represented in binary is Then adds a one a decimal number worksheets bits adding convert overflow hexadecimal computing ocr gcse notes we represent! The filling of a flame, not the filling of a number and 0 to! Soon see ), 4, 2 and 1 smallest number is the! To consent or Reject to decline non-essential cookies for this bringing it back to. Experience on our number, and thats why people came up with positive values together, we represent negative number

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how to represent negative numbers in binary